Everyone feels anxious at some point in time, and this is normal, especially if you are having problems. However, be careful if anxiety appears excessively or frequently. It could be a sign of an anxiety disorder.
Anxiety is a feeling of nervousness or restlessness. Usually, people will experience it when faced with certain situations, for example before a job interview, before an exam, when they have to make important decisions, or when waiting for the results of a doctor’s examination.
Anxiety is the body’s natural reaction to stress, which can actually make us more careful and alert. However, anxiety can be unhealthy if it appears excessively, is difficult to control, or interferes with daily activities. This condition is known as an anxiety disorder.
Causes of Anxiety Disorders
Anxiety disorders are one of the most serious mental disorders. This condition can be caused by problems with brain function that regulates fear and emotions.
Several factors can make a person more at risk of developing anxiety disorders, which are:
- Negative experiences that cause psychological stress or trauma.
- Personality disorders.
- Big life problems, for example, the quarter-life crisis.
- Side effects of certain drugs or substances, including caffeine and drugs.
- Certain diseases, such as heart rhythm disorders and thyroid disease.
Recognize Anxiety Disorders Symptoms and The Treatment
There are several types of anxiety disorders, which are panic disorder, social anxiety disorder, and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). The symptoms and treatment of anxiety disorders also vary depending on the type.
disorders Patients with panic disorders will experience panic attacks or excessive anxiety suddenly and repeatedly, for no apparent reason. The frequency and severity also vary. The following are some of the symptoms that can appear when panic disorder occurs:
- Feeling like choking or tightness in the chest
- Chest pain
- Feeling like having a heart attack
- Feeling helpless
A person with this condition feels like he will be attacked anytime and anywhere. Panic disorders usually last less than 10 minutes, but some can last up to an hour or more.
If you experience symptoms of a pounding heart or chest pain during a panic attack, you are advised to sit down and close your eyes. Then inhale deeply through your nose, and exhale through your mouth. Repeat a few times until you feel calmer.
If this doesn’t work, see a doctor or psychologist immediately. Medications given by doctors to treat panic disorders can be in the form of anxiety medications and psychotherapy, such as cognitive-behavioral therapy.
2. Social anxiety disorder
Social anxiety disorder or social phobia is a feeling of extreme anxiety or fear of social situations or interactions with other people, either before, after, or during those situations.
People with social anxiety disorder are afraid to say or do things in front of other people or in public because they think doing so will embarrass them. Some symptoms of social anxiety disorder are:
- Fear of or reluctant to interact with and greet other people, especially strangers.
- Have a low level of self-confidence.
- Avoid making eye contact with other people.
- Fear of being criticized or judged by others.
- Shame or afraid to go outside the home or be in public places.
Social anxiety disorder is different from ordinary feelings of shame. Shy people are generally still able to have social interactions or communicate and go about their daily activities, although they may feel embarrassed if they have to greet others or be invited to meet other people.
If the feeling of shame or fear of interacting with other people is felt to be extreme, causing difficulty in carrying out daily activities and socializing, then this condition needs medical help from a psychiatrist or psychologist.
Treatment of social anxiety disorder can include taking anxiety medications and antidepressants, as well as cognitive behavioral therapy as part of psychotherapy.
3. Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD)
This type of anxiety disorder makes sufferers feel excessively anxious that persists for a long time, usually up to more than 6 months. Patients with GAD will be very worried and think about many things (overthinking). The things you think about can vary, such as finances, health, hypochondria, or work.
A person suffering from generalized anxiety disorder usually can’t focus on something, has difficulty concentrating, and cannot feel relaxed. In some cases, this anxiety can be so severe that it causes depression.
The following are some of the symptoms that sufferers of generalized anxiety disorder can experience:
- Trembling and cold sweat
- Muscles tense
- Dizziness and headaches
- Easy to anger
- Chest thumping
- Often feel tired
- Shortness of breath
- Feeling often like to urinate
- No appetite
Treatment for generalized anxiety disorder can be reached in two ways, namely through psychotherapy and administration of psychotropic drugs or sedative.
If left without proper treatment, anxiety disorders can have a negative impact and reduce the sufferer’s quality of life. Therefore, if you experience excessive anxiety that interferes with your daily activities, you should immediately consult a doctor.